Home     Mail     Links     Articles     Reports     Correspondence     Immunological Stressor Agents [PDF]   Español  

Lecture at the conference on "The HIV/AIDS problem and the family well-being of the Nation"
Organized by the "Russian Parent Assembly" in Ekaterinburg, Russia, May 29 and 30, 2008


Roberto Giraldo1, M.D.


1. Introduction
2. HIV cannot be the cause of AIDS
3. The real causes of AIDS
4. A proposal for the definition of AIDS
5. The “tests for HIV” cannot diagnose HIV infection
6. Why errors about the causes of AIDS were committed
7. Some effective alternatives for the prevention and treatment of AIDS
8. Conclusions
9. References

(1) Introduction

Since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic there have been international scientific disagreements  about its causes and solutions. However, many remain unaware of this debate due to a forceful  censorship concerted by the Department of Health and Human Services of the Government of the United States, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations (UN) agency for AIDS (UNAIDS), a censorship that targets all of us who do not defend the official views on AIDS. Our group is composed of more than 3,000 scientists and researchers from more than 75 countries, including Emeritus Professors from many universities and several Nobel Prize Laureates. Further information concerning these so-called “AIDS Dissidents” is available at  www.rethinkingaids.com.

During the 16th HIV/AIDS World Conference in Toronto, Canada, August 13-18, 2006, the WHO and UNAIDS — both agencies of the UN — informed attendees that the number of AIDS cases continued to expand everywhere, but mostly in underdeveloped countries. According to their report, in 25 years of the pandemic, there have been 65 million  seropositives and 25 million deaths from AIDS (1,2).

Despite the fact that the population of Sub-Saharan Africa comprises only 10% of the world population, currently 60% (25 millions) of all world AIDS cases occur there. In Africa, 12.3 million children have lost one or two parents to AIDS. Contrary to what occurs in the wealthy nations, in Africa more than 60% of cases are in women and, due to this fact, it is arbitrarily stated that AIDS in Africa is “heterosexually transmitted” (1,2). The poorest countries of Africa such as Zimbabwe, Namibia, Uganda, and Mozambique have a prevalence between 20 and 35%, the highest in the world.

In India, the AIDS epidemic is also growing and it is also contended that 80% of the cases of “HIV/AIDS” are due to “heterosexual transmission” (1,2).

On the American continent, the countries with the highest prevalence of what is known as “HIV/AIDS” are precisely the poorest in the region: Haiti (3.8%), Bahamas (3.3%), Trinidad and Tobago (2.6%), Belize (2.5%), Guyana (2.4%), Surinam (1.9%), Honduras, Barbados and Jamaica (1.5%). Similarly, in these countries, UNAIDS and WHO state that most cases are due to “heterosexual transmission” simply because in these countries most cases are also in women. In the United States 69% of the cases occur in blacks and Hispanics (1,2) and due to the high frequency in women they speak of an increment in “heterosexual transmission” in these communities.

Brazil, with a population of 190 million inhabitants, has a prevalence of 0.5%. In large Brazilian cities most cases are in men but in its poorest areas most cases are in women (1,2). Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and Spain have a prevalence of 0.7%.

The question then should be: What is the explanation for the highest prevalence of AIDS  occurring in poor African and Caribbean countries and why are most cases there in women? Could the explanation be just sexual promiscuity, as white American and European researchers claim? Or is it simply a consequence of the social conditions of life prevailing in these countries? The reported prevalence could also indicate that the real cause of AIDS is not a sexually transmitted virus. How could a virus decide to attack only prosperous men in North America and Europe and attack only poor women in the underdeveloped regions?

Another question would be: What is the explanation for Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Spain and Brazil having a very low prevalence of AIDS? Perhaps it could be the happiness of their inhabitants…?

Scientific evidence indicates that, contrary to what is officially proposed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, as well as by UNAIDS and WHO, there is in fact no transmission of AIDS from one person to another, either by blood or by sexual intercourse, or from mother to child. The differing frequency of AIDS in men and women according to their socio-economic status is another indication that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the real causes of AIDS are linked to social conditions and life style.

Furthermore, after 25 years and billions of dollars spent on research, treatment, prevention and control, the official policies have proven to be a complete failure. Proponents of HIV as the cause of AIDS have failed to cure a single patient and the antiretroviral treatments that are used are highly toxic and in fact generate AIDS by themselves when given prophylactically to seropositive individuals. If that were not enough, HIV investigators continue to report that “there is no hope for a vaccine” in the short or medium term. Officially they still insist on the equation: HIV = AIDS = DEATH.

The WHO and UNAIDS blame their failure on the governments of the underdeveloped countries, as they did at the closing of the last HIV/AIDS World Conference in Toronto (August 2006), when they infamously blamed the government of President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa for being responsible for the AIDS epidemic in that country, simply because his government called for a scientific debate on the causes and solutions of AIDS in year 2000.

However, the correct explanation for the official failure is that all current policies for the treatment, prevention and control of AIDS are based on the false premise "that HIV is the cause of this syndrome."

(2) HIV cannot be the cause of AIDS

Starting in March 1987, numerous scientific publications have provided facts showing that what is known as human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, does not meet the epidemiological, the biological, or even the common sense requirements to be the cause of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS (3-24).

HIV is neither necessary, nor sufficient, nor does it always precede the development of the syndrome (5,6,14,22). This is demonstrated by the thousands of cases of AIDS that are “HIV-negative” (25-28), as well as by the multitude of healthy people who never develops AIDS despite being “HIV-positive” (29-31). In addition, there are many individuals who first develop immunodeficiency, and only after that, become “HIV-positive” (32-35), which indicates that the phenomenon known as HIV, rather than being the cause of AIDS, is itself an effect or consequence of the syndrome’s pathogenesis.

If HIV were a real virus, it would be a retrovirus, which are well known to be non-pathogenic viruses (4). Therefore, these retroviruses could explain neither the immunological abnormalities, nor the pathogenesis, nor the clinical manifestations, nor the natural history of AIDS (4-13,17,18). On the other hand, there is a large quantity of scientific documents objectively indicating that what we know as HIV is not even a genuine virus. HIV has never  been isolated or purified as a free, independent viral particle (virion) (36-41), as is routinely done with genuine viruses.

Since it has never been demonstrated that the phenomenon known as HIV either destroys the immune system or causes AIDS, researchers who enthusiastically advocate HIV as the cause of the syndrome offer a wide range of agents as cofactors, or HIV-helpers, in the genesis of AIDS (42,43). However, these “cofactors” are by themselves immunosuppressive and the repeated, multiple and chronic exposure to a variety of them generates AIDS, either in the presence or absence of a positive or reactive “HIV-test.” This is why I prefer calling these “cofactors” immunological stressor agents (16-22).

Following are some of the immunosuppressive agents that have been reported as “cofactors of HIV” (immunological stressor agents): alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, cigarette smoking, amphetamines, volatile nitrites (the so-called “poppers”), chemical contaminants in the environment, allergens, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus types 1, 2 and 6, shingles, Epstein Barr virus, adenovirus, other retroviruses, hepatitis viruses A, B, and C, papovavirus, mycoplasma and other superantigens, tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria, trypanosomiasis, filariasis, genuine   sexually transmitted diseases, semen, factor VIII, fear, anxiety, depression, panic, insomnia, lack of sleep, extreme exercise, poor sanitation, poverty, malnutrition, and vitamin and antioxidant deficiencies (44-61).

Additionally, careful study of the scientific literature strongly suggests that AIDS is neither an infectious disease nor is it sexually transmitted (2-24). The vertical transmission of AIDS from mother to baby during pregnancy and childbirth or through breast milk are merely myths,  assumptions made without any objective evidence (62-64). Nor is the transmission of AIDS through blood allegedly “infected with HIV” true (9,15). Even researchers who advocate HIV as the cause of AIDS are currently providing very convincing arguments challenging the myth of the transmission of AIDS (65-69).

On the other hand, "HIV negative" individuals who have normal blood levels of nutrients and antioxidants do not convert into "HIV positive" or "sero-positive" (70-72). In addition, "HIV-positive" individuals who have normal blood levels of nutrients and antioxidants never develop AIDS (73-85). Even the death of those who develop AIDS depends much more on their nutritional and antioxidant deficiencies than on any other factor (85-92). It has also been shown  that expectant "HIV-positive" mothers who have normal blood levels of nutrients and antioxidants during pregnancy give birth to "HIV-negative" babies (93-99). Therefore, in order for “seroconversion” — converting from “HIV-negative” to “HIV-positive”— to occur, it is a pre-requisite to have decreased blood levels of antioxidants and nutrients. This is what is officially and erroneously known as "HIV/AIDS transmission." Similar conditions are required for "seropositive" individuals to progress or develop the clinical manifestations of AIDS, or develop the possibility of dying from this syndrome. This clearly indicates that the decrease in blood levels of nutrients and antioxidant plays a major role in the pathogenesis of AIDS and in the course and prognosis of the disease.

(3) The real causes of AIDS

 The genuinely new circumstances surrounding all groups of people who most often develop AIDS are their exaggerated exposure, in recent decades, to a variety of immunological stressor agents that may have a mental, chemical, physical, biological and nutritional origin, (16-22).

For example, the novel circumstance that affected some sections of the gay communities in industrialized countries was the use of psychoactive drugs and aphrodisiacs that started in the 1970s (7,11-13,100,101). In these developed countries, children who are born with AIDS are born to mothers exposed during pregnancy to psychoactive drugs and other stressor agents (12,13,102,103). By contrast, in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean the new circumstances are the unacceptable levels of poverty to which their inhabitants have been subjected for many decades. Never before has there been so much poverty so widespread among so many while so much wealth is so concentrated in the hands of so few (104-107). In these underdeveloped countries poverty and all its consequences, such as malnutrition, lack of clean water, poor sewage and garbage disposal, infections and parasites, and the lack of hope for a better tomorrow, are major risk factors for AIDS (19-24).

Immunological stressor agents vary, therefore, from person to person, from risk group to risk group, from country to country, and from continent to continent.

On the other hand, it is important to keep in mind that scientific evidence clearly indicates that all adult degenerative diseases are highly dependent on the psychological and organic health status of the mother during pregnancy (108-117). Similarly, nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy may result in immunodeficiency, which can accompany a person throughout life (118-122). In experimental animals immunodeficiency in the newborn animal results as a consequence of the mother’s malnutrition during pregnancy, and these immunological deficiencies are transmitted through three generations, even when the intermediate generations were well fed (123).

In poor countries, therefore, poverty is not a static fact. Scientific findings indicate that the consequences of poverty have been transmitted from generation to generation in a cumulative manner.

The fact that AIDS exists in both poor and rich countries is a clear indication that our species is in danger. The human body cannot tolerate more exploitation, more toxins, more poverty, more malnutrition, nor can it tolerate more of any other kinds of abuse!

Coincidentally, AIDS appeared in different and distant groups of people in the second half of the twentieth century, at a time when the immune systems of humans was already saturated and had seriously deteriorated due to multiple, repeated and chronic exposures to immunological stressor agents (16,23). Exposures can be involuntary, through the living conditions that people are subjected to, and sometimes voluntary, through lifestyle choices.

In recent decades, these stressor agents have been steadily increasing, both in quantity and variety, across the globe (16,23,124,125). The capabilities of the immune system are neither infallible nor infinite. They have limits. AIDS is the worst state of deterioration that the immune system of people can reach. In AIDS not only the immune system but all other body systems are severely damaged. AIDS therefore inaugurates a new epoch in the history of human diseases (126). The increase in immunological stressor agents in the human ecosystem is seriously endangering the preservation of our species (16,23,126). This new human syndrome is one of the terrible consequences of the destruction that we are causing the earth, due to our own psychopathology (127). AIDS is an alarm bell! What is worse is that the mistaken belief in HIV blinds us from seeing this grave human situation.

Abundant objective facts indicate that a variety of stressor agents for the immune system, of mental, chemical, physical, biological, and nutritional origin, are the true etiologic agents or causes of AIDS (16-19,126). The immunological stressor agents act both by themselves and by stimulating the production of free radicals — special oxidizing agents — which cause damage  to the immune-competent cells and functions as well as to other physiological systems (17,18,126). From a biochemical viewpoint, AIDS is a disease of excessive oxidative stress (14,17,18,128-134). This is the reason why antioxidant agents have a crucial role in the treatment and prevention of AIDS (136-139).

Working closely with seropositive individuals from Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and Lain America brought me to the conclusion that to become seropositive, besides being exposed — generally for long periods of time — to a variety of external immunological stressor agents, the person also has to have a specific type of personality, a conclusion which is in agreement with the psychosomatic origin of all diseases, elegantly proposed by Norberto Keppe and his group of scientists in São Paulo, Brazil. Specific psychopathology is always needed for the developing of any human illness, from a simple common cold to cancer and AIDS  (140, 141). This applies to both organic and mental illnesses. Social pathologies are also the results of the psychopatology of people, especially those with power (142).

Seropositive individual generally are very unsatisfied with their lives; they are depressive, often paranoid and choose a self-destructive style of life. This is a common denominator in most individuals comprising the groups of people that most often develop seropositivity and AIDS.

4) A proposal for the definition for AIDS

To avoid further confusing people with the idea that HIV and AIDS are the same thing, and because what is known as HIV is not the cause of AIDS and, further, since it has never been shown that HIV is a genuine virus, the word “HIV” must be removed from the definition of AIDS.

Whenever people hear or read our arguments demonstrating that HIV does not exist, they think that AIDS does not exist either, because they have been made to believe that HIV equals AIDS and vice versa. The world has been disoriented by the international institutions responsible for public health which preach the equation HIV=AIDS=DEATH, an equation that has  programmed and continues programming the minds of people toward death.

Of course AIDS exists! But it is not caused by a virus called HIV, if only because the very existence of the virus has never been proven on an empirical level.

AIDS must be understood as the most severe of all acquired immunodeficiencies, thus being a toxic and nutritional syndrome caused by multiple, repeated and chronic exposures to immunological stressor agents whose distribution varies within the groups of people that most often develop the syndrome (17,18,126). The immunological stressor agents exercise immunotoxic or immunogenic effects, or both, which generate a state of oxidative stress in the immunocompetent cells and the metabolic reactions of the immune system and other bodily systems (126). The progressive and chronic deterioration of the network of the immune system, leads the individual to a severe deficit of the immunological functions of defense, homeostasis, and surveillance, with the subsequent and simultaneous occurrence of infections, neoplasms and metabolic disorders. The collapse of the immune system eventually causes the death of the individual (126) (Figure 1).

Before the appearance of AIDS in the early eighties of the twentieth century, there were other immunodeficiencies but never with the intensity and severity of AIDS. Before 1981, people with acquired immunodeficiencies showed clinical signs of deterioration of one or two of the fundamental functions of the immune system, which are: protection against harmful agents, preventing the growth of tumors and homeostatic balance of all organs and bodily systems. However, with AIDS, for the first time there occurred the simultaneous clinical manifestations of deficiency in all three main functions of the immune system, and for this reason AIDS is clinically manifested through opportunistic infections, opportunistic tumors and opportunistic metabolic diseases. Opportunistic because they only appear after there is a state of very severe immunodeficiency.

(5) The “tests for HIV” cannot diagnose HIV infection

The so-called HIV tests — ELISA, Western blot, Viral Load — are neither sensitive nor specific for detecting past or recent infection with HIV (36-39,41,143-146).

As long as there is no scientific proof of the isolation and purification of HIV as a free independent virus, and while doubts continue about its very existence as a genuine virus, it is impossible to ensure that a positive result on these tests indicate HIV infection (37,39,41).

Neither Luc Montagnier at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, nor Robert Gallo at the National Cancer Institute in the United States, nor Jay Levy at the University of California isolated HIV, as they contended in Science (41,147-149). These researchers simply observed in cultures  of cells —- stimulated with mutagens and other oxidizing agents — taken from people with AIDS or at risk of developing it some proteins, various enzymes, and fragments of nucleic acids, but they never isolated free and independent viral particles, due to the fact that they did not follow the internationally accepted steps for the isolation of retroviruses (150,151).

The internationally accepted methodology for the isolation and purification of retroviruses (150,151), a methodology that the above researchers did not follow, includes the following steps: a) Concentration of the viral particles by centrifugation; b) Electron microscopy monitoring of the concentrated viral particles; c) Biochemical and genetic analysis of the purified viral particles; d) Controlling the experiments to avoid misinterpreting endogenous retroviruses as exogenous infectious retroviruses; and e) Biological tests to ascertain if the isolated retrovirus is indeed potentially pathogenic and virulent (150,151).

Since Montagnier, Gallo and Levy thought that they had a disintegrated virus, with the isolated proteins they prepared antigens to detect antibodies against these proteins that allegedly belonged to HIV (ELISA and Western blot tests), and with the fragments of nucleic acid they prepared reagents for the PCR test, arbitrarily called "viral load". However, both proteins and fragments of nucleic acid can perfectly well correspond to what are known as "stress proteins" (41,152-155), released by the stimulated (oxidized) culture cells or by the cells of people who have been exposed to many toxic and antigenic challenges with the subsequent oxidative stress, as often occurs within the groups of people who most often develop AIDS.

People who react positively on these tests are not infected with “the AIDS virus.” These people react positively on these tests simply because they have been exposed to many toxic and antigenic challenges and thus their immune systems (as well as many other bodily systems) are oxidized and weakened and that is why these people have a higher risk of developing AIDS (17,18,41) and therefore should take precautions for the remainder of their lives.

Thus, the phenomenon known as HIV is a marker of intoxication and chronic immunodeficiency (19,24,41,156), but it is not the cause of AIDS. On the contrary, the phenomenon knows as HIV, rather than being the cause of AIDS, is a consequence of the pathogenesis of this syndrome (19,22, 24,41).

Therefore, being "HIV positive" or "Seropositive" does not indicate having been infected but having been intoxicated or oxidized; does not indicate either having been infected through sexual intercourse, during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding, or having been infected by blood supposedly "contaminated with HIV." HIV-positive people also pose no danger of infecting anyone else, since it has never been proven that HIV is a genuine virus.

Much more on this matter is available in an article that I wrote with professor Etienne de Harven as a response to Gallo et al in April, 2006 (41).

(6) Why errors about the causes of AIDS were committed

These mistakes were made due to five key factors: microbiological prejudice, homophobia, racism, social corruption and the crisis of the scientific establishment.

6.1. Microbial prejudice. The excessive emphasis on the infectious theory or microbiological prejudice in the minds of researchers, health care professionals, journalists and the general public helped to commit this error and maintains it. This prejudice, or source of bias, comes from the overstatement of the germ theory promulgated by Pasteur and Koch, which in its time provided some benefit to medicine. Unfortunately, today most still think, as they did at the end of nineteenth century, that everything is infectious, that everything is contagious and that there must be some germ that causes all. The world was prepared, through a century of panic to microbes, to commit the mistake on the etiology of AIDS. There was no way to avoid it.

6.2. Homophobia. The fact that the first cases of AIDS occurred in some men of the American "gay" community has increased homophobic sentiments in all areas of contemporary society. Also, because of the high incidence of AIDS in homosexual men, especially in industrialized countries, it was arbitrarily decided that the disease was transmitted by anal intercourse. However, there is no scientific evidence of the so-called “sexual transmission” of AIDS.

6.3. Racism. The fact of the increase in the number of AIDS cases among the black American community and in the very poor communities of Africa has enabled white American and European researchers to propose that AIDS had originated in Africa, due to inappropriate relationships between Africans and animals (157-159). This is  no objective evidence for this theory. These are simply racist concepts in the minds of researchers who advocate HIV as the cause of AIDS.

6.4. Corruption in all spheres of society is another factor that assisted the commission of the   error and helps to maintains it (160-163). Many researchers are working not in the interest of service to their fellow human beings, but to achieve fame, recognition and awards (160). The case of scientific misconduct committed by Robert Gallo, of the United States government’s National Cancer Institute, in his attempts to "invent" — not discover — "the AIDS virus" is well known in the international scientific community and in segments of the public (164).

Moreover, there has arisen a very profitable industry of AID$ and those hundreds of thousands who benefit from it, all of whom are opposed and will oppose, with all their forces, any  correction (166,166).

6.5. Another factor that brought about this scientific mistake is the ongoing crisis being experienced by the scientific establishment, particularly flaws in research methodology, such as non-compliance with the epidemiological requirements (167). None of the assumptions that underlie the infectious theory about AIDS meet the requirements of the investigative method. AIDS does not comply with Koch's postulates (168,169), nor does it conform to the other epidemiological requirements of an infectious disease (167-174). None of the groundwork for the HIV-AIDS hypothesis has been demonstrated at an objective level. The hypothesis comprises nothing more than mere theoretical assumptions engendered in the minds of the  theory’s creators.

In practical terms, the entire world population became accustomed to believing anything that was told to them by the so-called “men of science.” Unfortunately, at present, the opportunity for criticism and questioning is virtually nil. Most people do not request the necessary or possible proofs for apparently scientific assertions. Very often matters of science are defined in press conferences (176-178).

The worst epidemic afflicting the contemporary world is an epidemic crisis of the scientific establishment (176-181). This is much larger than the AIDS epidemic. The international belief that AIDS is an infectious disease and that it is sexually transmitted is one of the consequences of the crisis of the scientific establishment. And there more consequences will emerge, unless we correct course and take a path paved with a truly objective research methodology.

Many people are still not aware of this controversy because of the terrible censorship against our points of view, censorship from the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) of The United States, the WHO and the UNAIDS.

The scientific community has been mistaken many times in the last century when considering infectious diseases, many of which were not infectious, such as pellagra, scurvy and beriberi, to mention only a few examples (10,18). The mistake this time with AIDS has a much greater extent due to the catastrophic impact on thousands of people who suffer from this toxic and nutritional syndrome, people from different social groups on all continents. The guilt for the mistakes concerning AIDS lies with several researchers and health institutions of the government of the United States, such as the DHHS, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which have been echoed by the World Health Organization and the UNAIDS, the latter two being agencies of the United Nations (UN). The majority of the people in the world simply accepted blindly whatever was said by "the men of science" from the north.

WHO and UNAIDS recognize that there have been 25 million deaths from AIDS, unnecessary deaths that make AIDS the greatest genocide in human history. What a shame that this time the genocide is being committed in the name of science.

(7) Some effective alternatives for the prevention  and treatment of AIDS

The view of AIDS as a toxic, nutritional and oxidative disease allows it to be treated, prevented and eradicated in an effective, effortless and inexpensive way (182,183), as is being done in many countries.

For the treatment of AIDS we may apply the same basic principles as for the treatment of chronic toxic degenerative diseases: Discontinue, as much as possible, exposures to immunological stressor agents, detoxify the organs and systems intoxicated and stimulate the immune system and others that may be weakened (182 -184). Ten key steps may be followed for the treatment and prevention of AIDS [www.robertogiraldo.com/esp/articulos/Tratamiento_y_Prevencion_2002.html]:

(I)                Accept the patient’s own psychopathology

(II)             Delete from the mind the program of death: HIV=AIDS=DEATH

(III)          In each case, identify the real causes of AIDS

(IV)           Diagnosis based on clinical and laboratory aids

(V)              Avoid more exposures to immunological stressor agents

(VI)           Detoxify the immune system and other systems

(VII)        Stimulate and regenerate the immune system and other body systems

(VIII)     Treat the clinical manifestations of AIDS when they arise

(IX)           Prefer natural measures and work together, as a teem, with other therapists

(X)              Do it at the right time

Drugs such as AZT, protease inhibitors and other antiretrovirals should be removed from the treatment and prevention of AIDS because they are agents that themselves generate AIDS (185-191). Nor does it make sense to use drugs to prevent the replication of “HIV,” since it has never been scientifically proven that this has any causal role in the pathogenesis of AIDS. In addition, it is absurd to try to destroy a virus whose existence has never been proven.

The protease inhibitors are highly toxic drugs for all body cells, since proteases are after all normally used for metabolic reactions in all body organs and systems (186). However, the antioxidant action of protease inhibitors (192) creates, at the beginning of its use, a transient decrease of what is known as "viral load," but this is nothing more than oxidation or poisoning load. The same action, and even more effectively, can be achieved, on an ongoing basis, with antioxidant agents and without the toxic actions of the protease inhibitors on all body organs and body systems (183).

The control and eradication of AIDS are therefore easily possible, and depends on the capability of the person to completely remove from his/her mind the program of death, perceive his/her own psychopathology, avoid exposures to immunological stressor agents, and detoxify  and stimulate the organs and systems that may be weakened (182,183). There must be an eradication of the myth that being "HIV-positive" refers to being infected with the virus that causes AIDS. To be "HIV-positive" or "seropositive" actually means being intoxicated or oxidized (14,36,41,144,146). The mere belief or fear — mental agenda — of being infected with “the AIDS virus” is terribly toxic to the immune system and has become a new cause of AIDS (54,55,193). Defeating fear is the first requirement for success in the treatment and prevention of AIDS (194). It is absolutely necessary to fully eradicate from the minds of people the program of HIV = AIDS = DEATH.

The current programs and campaigns to prevent AIDS, based primarily on so-called "safe sex" with widespread distribution of condoms, not only have failed to reduce the numbers of AIDS cases, but have promoted promiscuity. However, condoms (without latex or toxic lubricants) must be employed to avoid contracting authentically sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, in order to prevent unwanted pregnancies and to avoid the immunosuppressive actions of semen (44-46).

Also, the American campaign to provide "clean" syringes (“without HIV”) to drug addicts is actually helping to generate AIDS and encourage drug addiction and drug trafficking. All psychoactive drugs that enter the body by any route are potent immunotoxic agents (47-52).

Given that AIDS is a toxic and nutritional disease and that conventional or allopathic medicine  does not know how to detoxify and stimulate in a non toxic way the different organs and systems that are chronically intoxicated, it is ideal that, in addition to conventional health care professionals, patients consult complementary, alternative or holistic therapists, since they use therapeutic techniques that involve the body, mind and spirit, with have proven effective for the treatment and prevention of degenerative toxic and nutritional diseases such as AIDS (182,195,196).

Different mental or psychic, nutritional, energetic, magnetic, physical and spiritual techniques have shown and continue to show effectiveness in both detoxification as well as in stimulation and regeneration of the immune system and other body systems of seropositive people and patients with AIDS (182). Some of these techniques are trilogical psychoanalysis, homeopathic and naturopathy medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, neural therapy, digitopunture, Chinese medicine, herbal medicine, nutritional therapy, treatment with chelating agents, hydrotherapy, therapy with seawater, reflexology, lymphatic massage, ayurvedic medicine, Bach flowers, biocatalitic hyperthermia, oxygen therapy, aromatherapy, therapeutic massage, art therapy, colortherapy, hypnosis, yoga, t'ai chi-chih, qigong (chi kung or tuina), Chinese massage, reiki, magnetotherapy, sofrología, orthomolecular medicine, and spiritual care (182,195,196). As with conventional medicine, the effectiveness of each of these techniques or therapies depends largely on the knowledge and experience of those who apply them and the acceptance by those who receive them. Greater effectiveness is achieved by applying to a given person several of these therapies simultaneously.

For those interested in further details on these alternative proposals for the treatment and prevention of AIDS, they are encouraged to consider carefully two articles:

"Treatment and prevention of AIDS: A guide to basic principles for a nontoxic, effective and cheap alternative" (182): www.robertogiraldo.com/esp/articulos/Tratamiento_y_Prevencion_2002.html

"Nutritional therapy for the treatment and prevention of AIDS: scientific basis" (183):

8) Conclusions

8.1. There is no scientific evidence that HIV is the cause of AIDS. Furthermore, there is ample evidence that HIV does not even exist as a genuine virus.

8.2. The real causes of AIDS are repeated and multiple exposures to a variety of immunological stressor agents of mental, chemical, physical, biological, and nutritional origin. These vary from person to person, from at risk group to at risk group, and from country to country. In developed countries the main risk factor for AIDS is the use of psychoactive drugs, and in underdeveloped countries the most important risk factor for this syndrome is poverty, with all its consequences.

8.3. The toxic and nutritional hypothesis of AIDS solves all the problems that the infectious/viral hypothesis has failed to resolve, despite the billions of dollars invested in research, prevention and patient care.

8.4. The so-called “tests for HIV” — ELISA, Western blot and viral load or PCR — cannot detect “HIV infection.”

8.5. For the treatment and prevention of AIDS it is mandatory, first to accept the patient’s  own psychopathology and remove the death program from the mind of seropositive individuals and patients with AIDS; to avoid as much as possible exposures to immunological stressor agents; and detoxify the organs and systems intoxicated and stimulate the immune system and others which may be weakened. Anti-retroviral drugs are potent immunotoxic agents and can generate AIDS by themselves.

8.6. AIDS is the worst state of alteration that the immune system of humans can reach. In AIDS, all other body systems are also damaged. AIDS inaugurates, therefore, a new epoch in the history of human diseases. The increment of stressor agents in the human ecosystem is seriously endangering the preservation of our species. AIDS is a warning bell! However, the myth or belief in the phenomenon known as HIV does not allow us to see the danger that is engulfing our species.

8.7. The errors about the causes of AIDS were committed due to five key factors: Microbiological prejudice, homophobia, racism, corruption of society and the deep crisis of the scientific establishment.

8.8. The analysis, understanding and resolution of the mistakes made about the causes and solutions of AIDS will force the medical authorities worldwide to rethink their tactics and strategies in caring for people's health. It will generate questions, establish diagnoses and provide solutions to the unjust ways that humans relate to one another in contemporary society, and that ultimately are responsible for the existence of AIDS.

8.9. To overcome this crisis is a matter that concerns everyone: The seriousness of this situation demands that we act accordingly and with determination and resolution. The only way to avoid the continuation of this genocide in the name of science is by creating hundreds of thousands of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in all countries and through disseminating these truths about AIDS as a toxic and nutritional disease, perfectly curable and not infectious, viral, or incurable as we have been forced to believe. Moreover, it is important that people cured of AIDS by our programs be grouped into NGOs from which they may help with the treatment and prevention of AIDS in many other persons.

8.10. More detailed information on the international scientific debate about the causes and solutions of AIDS, can be found at the following Web sites:


FIGURE 1. Sequence of events within the natural history of AIDS:

Exposures to Immunological Stressor Agents  
Mental  Chemical   Physical   Biological   Nutritional

Oxidative Stress



Opportunistic Infections
Opportunistic Tumors
Opportunistic Metabolic Diseases


Eventual Death
Unless the process is stopped

(9) References

  1. United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The HIV/AIDS pandemic, 2006.


  1. Roberts L, Cohen J. HIV/AIDS: Latin America & Caribbean. Science July 28, 2006; 313: 467-490.
  2. De Harven E. Pioneer deplores “HIV” “maintaining errors is evil” Continuum (London) 1997-1998; 5(2): 24.
  3. Duesberg PH. Retroviruses as carcinogens and pathogens:  Expectations and reality. Cancer Research 1987; 47: 1199- 1220.
  4. Duesberg PH. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Correlation but no causation.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989; 86: 755-764.
  5. Duesberg PH. AIDS Epidemiology: Inconsistencies with HIV and with infectious diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 1575-1579.
  6. Duesberg PH. AIDS acquired by drug consumption and other noncontagious risk factors. Pharmac Ther 1992; 55:201-277.
  7. Duesberg PH. Can epidemiology determine whether drugs or HIV cause AIDS? AIDS-Forschung 1993; 12: 627-635.
  8. Duesberg PH. Foreign-protein-mediated immunodeficiency in hemophiliacs with and without HIV. Genetica 1995; 95: 51-70.
  9. Duesberg PH. Inventing the AIDS virus. Washington DC: Regnery Publishing Inc. 1996; 722.
  10. Duesberg PH, Rasnick D. The drug-AIDS hypothesis. Continuum (London) 1997; 4(5); S1-S24.
  11. Duesberg PH, Rasnick D. The AIDS dilema. Drug diseases blamed on a passenger virus. Genetica 1998; 104: 85-132.
  12. Duesberg PH, Koehnlein C, Rasnick D. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition J. Biosci. 2003; 28: 383–412.
  13. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E. Reappraisal of AIDS - Is the oxidation induced by the risk factors the primary cause? Medical Hypothesis 1988; 25: 151-162.
  14. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner VF, Papadimitriou JM, Causer D. A critical analysis of the HIV-T4-cell AIDS hypothesis.  Genetica 1995; 95: 5-24.
  15. Giraldo RA. AIDS and stressors I: Worldwide rise of  immunological stressors (Abstract). Toxicology Letters Supplement 1/78. 1995: s34.
  16. Giraldo RA. AIDS and stressors II: A proposal for the pathogenesis of AIDS (Abstract). Toxicology Letters Supplement 1/78. 1995: s34.
  17. Giraldo RA. AIDS and stressors III: A proposal for the natural history of AIDS (Abstract). Toxicology Letters Supplement 1/78. 1995: s35.
  18. Giraldo RA. AIDS and stressors IV: The real meaning of HIV  (Abstract). Toxicology Letters Supplement 1/78. 1995: s35. Los resumenes de SIDA y estresantes I, II, III y IV se encuentran publicados en español en "El Pequeño Periódico", publicación de la Fundación Arte y Ciencia, Medellín, Colombia, Marzo de 1996 (46); p. 8-10.
  19. Giraldo RA. Polemica científica internacional acerca de la causa del SIDA. Investigación y Educación en Enfermería (Universidad de Antioquia, Facultad de Enfermería, Colombia) 1996; 14(2); 55-74.
  20. Giraldo RA. Papel de estresantes inmunológicos en la inmunodeficiencia. IATREIA (Universidad de Antioquia, Facultad de Medicina, Colombia) 1997; 10: 62-76.
  21. Giraldo RA. AIDS and stressors: AIDS in neither an infectious disease nor is sexually transmitted. It is a toxic-nutritional syndrome caused by the alarming worldwide increment of immunological stressor agents. Medellín, Colombia: Impresos Begón; 1997; 205.
  22. Giraldo RA. El alarmante incremento mundial de agentes estresantes inmunológicos. En: Ahumada C, Hernandez A, Velasco M. Relaciones internacionakles, política social y salud: Desafios en la era de la globalización. Bogotá: Fundación Cultural Javeriana de Artes Gráficas. 1998; 49-73.
  23. Giraldo RA. Es un virus la verdadera causa del SIDA? Los agentes estresantes inmunologicos podrían ser la verdadera causa del SIDA. Natura Medicatrix 2002; 20: 208-313.
  24. Smith DK, Neal JJ, SD, CDC. Idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia task force. Unexplained opportunistic infections and CD4 T-lymphocytopenia. NEJM 1993; 328: 373-379.
  25. Ho DD et al. Idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia - Immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection. NEJM 1993; 328: 380-385.
  26. Duncan RA et al. Idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia - Four patients with opportunistic infections and no evidence of HIV infection. NEJM 1993; 328: 393-398.
  27. Fauci CD4 T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection - No lights, no camara, just facts. NEJM 1993b; 328: 429-431.
  28. Altman LK. “Long term survivors may hold key clues to puzzle of AIDS”. The New York Times. Science Times, enero 24 1995, p. C1 y C11.
  29. Baltimore D. Lessons from people with nonprogressive HIV infection. NEJM 1995; 332: 259-260.
  30. Levy JA. Overall features of HIV pathogenesis: Prognosis for long-term survival. En: HIV and the pathogenesis of AIDS. Second Edition. Washington DC: ASM Press; 1998; 311-338.
  31. Layon J et al. Altered T-lymphocyte subsets in hospitalized intravenous drug abusers. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144: 1376.
  32. Goedert JJ et al Decreased helper T lymphocytes in homosexual men. II. Sexual practices. Amer J Epidemiol 1985; 121: 637-644.
  33. Des Jarlais et al. CD4 Lymphocytopenia among injecting drug users in New York City. J AIDS 1993; 6: 820-822.
  34. Marion SA et al. Evidence that prior immune dysfunction predisposes to human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual men. J AIDS 1989; 2: 178-186.
  35. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, Papadimitriou JM. Is a positive Western blot proof of HIV infection ? Bio/Technology 1993; 11: 696-707.
  36. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner VF, Papadimitriou JM, Causer D. The isolation of HIV: Has it really been achieved? The case against. Continuum (London) September/October 1996; 4(3); S1-S24.
  37. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, Papadimitriou JM, Causer D. HIV antibodies: Further questions and a plea for clarification. Curr Med Res Opin 1997; 13: 627-634.
  38. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, Papadfimitriou J et al. A critique of the Montagnier evidence for the HIV/AIDFS hypothesis. Aceptado para ser publicado en Medical Hypothesis en 2004. Puede leerse en


  1. De Harven E. Remarks on methods for retroviral isolation. Continuum (London) 1998; 5(3); 20-21.
  2. Giraldo RA, de Harven E. HIV tests cannot diagnose HIV infection. Abril de 2006.


  1. Fauci Immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. J Acq Immunodeficiency Syndromes 1993: 6: 655-662.
  2. Levy JA. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Microbiological Reviews 1993; 57: 183-289.
  3. Darrow WW, Jaffe HW, Curran JW. Passive anal intercourse as a risk factor for AIDS in homosexual men. Lancet 1983; ii: 160.
  4. James K, Hargreave E. Immunosuppression by seminal plasma and its possible clinical significance. Immunol today 1984; 5: 357.
  5. Root-Bernstein RS, Hobbs De Witt S. Semen Alloantigens and Lymphocytotoxic Antibodies in AIDS and ICL. Genetica 1995; 95: 133-156.
  6. Holsapple MP, Munson AE, Amos H. Immunotoxicology of abused drugs. En: Dean JH, Luster MI, Munson AE, Amos H. Immunotoxicology and immunopharmacology. New York: Raven Press; 1986; 381.
  7. Friedman H, Klein TW, Specter S. Immunosuppression by marihuana and its components. En: Ader R, Felten DL, Cohen N. Psychoneuroimmunology. San Diego: Academic Press; 1991; 931-953.
  8. Bryant HU, Cunningham KA, Jerrells TR. Effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse on immune responses. En: Lakoski JM, Galloway MP, Whithe FJ. Cocaine: Pharmacology, physiology, and clinical strategies. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1992: 353-369.
  9. Kaminski NE. Mechanism of immune modulation by cannabinoids. En: Dean JH, Luster MI, Munson AE, Kimber Immunotoxicology and immunopharmacology. New York: Raven Press; 1994; 349-362.
  10. Friedman H, Bendinelli M, Specter S. Drugs of abuse, immunity and infection. New York: Plenum Press; 1995: 350.
  11. Haverkos HW, Drotman DP. Measuring inhalant nitrite exposure in gay men: Implications for elucidating the etiology of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. Genetica 1995; 95: 157-164.
  12. Gold JM. The enemy within. The high cost of living near nuclear reactors. Breast cancer, AIDS, low birthweights, and other radiation-induced immune deficiency deffects. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows; 1996; 346.
  13. Friedman H, Bendinelli M, Specter S. Psychoneuroimmunology, stress and infections. : Plenum Press, 1995; 300.
  14. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R. Psychological influences on immunity. Implications for AIDS. Amer J Psychol 1988; 43: 892-899.
  15. Jain VK, Chandra RK. Does nutritional deficiency predispose to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome? Nutr Res 1984; 4: 537-542.
  16. Cates W Jr. The “other STD’s”: do they really matter? JAMA 1988; 259: 3606-3608.
  17. Lamoureaux G et al. Is prior mycobacterial infection a common predisposing factor to AIDS in Haitians and Africans? Ann Inst Pasteur/Immunol 1987; 138: 521-529.
  18. Melbye M, GrossMan RJ, Goedert JJ, Eyster ME, Biggar RJ. Risk of AIDS after herpes zoster. Lancet 1987 i; 728-730.
  19. Nussenzweig RS. Parasitic disease as a cause of immunosuppression. NEJM 1982; 306: 423-424.
  20. Quinn TC, Mann JM, Curran JW, Piot P. AIDS in Africa: An epidemiologic paradigm. Science 1986; 234: 955-963.
  21. Giraldo RA. Milking the market. Will mothers dish out the W.H.O. formula? Continuum () 1998; 5(4); 8-10.
  22. Farber C. HIV and breastfeeding. The fears. The misconceptions. The facts. Mothering 1998; Sep/Oct (90); 66-71.
  23. Philpott P. HIV Hysteria leads UN to launch anti-breastfeeding campaign. Reappraising AIDS 1998; 6(9); 1-3.
  24. Gisselquist D, Rothemberg R, Potterat J, Drucker E. HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa not explained by sexual or vertical transmission. Int J STD & AIDS 2002; 13: 657-666.
  25. Gisselquist D, Potterat JJ, Brody S, Vachon F. Let it be sexual: how health care transmission of AIDS in Africa was ignored. Int J STD & AIDS 2003; 14: 148-161.
  26. Gisselquis D, Potterat JJ. Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Africa: an empiric estimate.  Int J STD & AIDS 2003; 14: 162-173.
  27. Gisselquis D, Potterat JJ. Confound it: latent lessons from the Mwanza trial of STD treatment to reduce HIV transmission. Int J STD & AIDS 2003; 14: 179-184.
  28. Gisselqauist D, Potterat J, Brody S. HIV transmission during paediatric health care in sub-Saharan Africa – risks and evidence. South African Medical Journal 2004; 94: 109-116.
  29. Mehendale SM et al. Low carotenoid concentration and the risk of HIV seroconversion in Pune, India. JAIDS 2001; 26: 352-359.
  30. McDonald KS et al. Vitamin A and risk of HIV-1 seroconversion among Kenyan men with genital ulcers. AIDS 2001; 15: 635-639.
  31. Moore PS et al. Role of nutritional status and weight loss in HIV seroconversion among Rwandan women. JAIDS 1993; 6: 611-616.
  32. Tang AM et al. Dietary micronutrient intake and risk progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected homosexual men. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 1-15.
  33. Baum MK et al. Micronutrients and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS 1995; 9: 1051-1056.
  34. Fawzi WW, Hunter DJ. Vitamins in HIV disease progression and vertical transmission. Epidemiology 1998; 9: 457-466.
  35. Tang AM et al. Association between serum vitamin A and E levels and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS 1997; 11: 613-620.
  36. Baum MK et al. HIV-1 infection in women is associated with severe nutritional deficiencies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997; 16: 272-278.
  37. Tang AM et al. Dietary micronutrients intake and risk of progression to AIDS in HIV-1-infected homosexual men. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 937-951.
  38. Tang AM et al. Association between serum vitamin A and E levels and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS 1997; 11: 613-620.
  39. Tang AM et al. Low serum B-12 concentrations are associated with faster HIV-1 disease progression. J Nutr 1997; 127: 345-351.
  40. Bogden JD et al. Status of selected nutrients and progression of HIV-1 infection. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72: 809-815.
  41. Graham NM et al. Relationship of serum cooper and zinc levels to HIV seropositivity and progression to AIDS. J AIDS 1991; 4: 976-980.
  42. Allavena C et al. Relationship of trace elements, immunological markers, and HIV-1 infection progression. Biol Trace Elem Res 1995; 47: 133-138.
  43. Baum MK et al. Micronutrients and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS 1995; 9: 1051-1056.
  44. Fawzi WW, Msamasnga GI, Spiegelman D, et al. A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality. NEJM 2004; 351: 23-32.
  45. Baum MK et al. High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. J Acquir Immuno Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997; 15: 370-374.
  46. Melchior JC et al. Malnutrition and wasting, immunodeficiency, and chronic inflammation as ondependent predictors of survival in HIV-infected patients. Nutrition 1999; 15: 865-869.
  47. Feldman JG et al. Serum albumin as a predictor of survival in HIV-infected women in the women’s interagency HIV study. AIDS 2000; 14: 863-870.
  48. Shearer WT et al. Evaluation of immune survival factors in pediatric HIV-1 infection. Ann NY Acad Sci 2000; 918: 298-312.
  49. Landesman S. Vitamin A relationships to mortality in HIV disease and effects on HIV infection: recent and late breaking studies. Presented at forum, Lawton Chiles International House, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, May 16, 1996.
  50. Haug C et al. Subnormal serum concentration of 1,25-vitamin D in HIV infection: Correlation with degree of immune deficiency and survival. JID 1994; 169: 889-893.
  51. Wheeler DA et al. Weight loss as predictor of survival and disease progression in HIV-infection. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. J Acquir Immune Def Syndr Huma Retrovirol 1998; 18: 80-85.
  52. Fawzi WW et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. JAIDS 2000; 23: 246-254.
  53. Fawzi WW et al. Randomized trial of effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes and T cell counts in HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania. Lancet 1998; 351: 1477-1482.
  54. Landers DV. 1995 Nutrition and immune function II: Maternal factors influencing transmission. Nutrition in pediatric HIV infection: Setting the research agenda, Bethesda, MD, September 1995.
  55. Stiehm RE. Newborn factors in maternal-infant transmission of pediatric HIV infection. In: Nutrition in pediatric HIV infection: Setting the Research Agenda. Bethesda, MD : NIH, September 1995.
  56. Greenberg BL et al. Vitamin A deficiency and maternal-infant transmission of HIV in two metropolitan areas in the United States. AIDS 1997; 11: 325-332.
  57. Semba RD et al. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994; 343: 1593-1597.
  58. Semba RD et al. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994a; 343: 1593-1597.
  59. Lerner WD. Cocaine abuse and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Tale of two epidemics. Am J Med 1989; 87: 661-663.
  60. Larrat PE, Zierler S. Entangled epidemics: Cocaine use and HIV disease. J Psychoactive drugs 1993; 25: 207-221.
  61. Mikhael NZ, Peel HW. Maternal drug abuse and subsequent effects on the newborn. En: Kacew S, Reasor MJ. Toxicology and their newborn. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1984; 101-120.
  62. Needleman Hl, Bellinger D. Prenatal exposure to toxicants: Developmental consequences. Baltimore: Johns HopkinsUniversity Press; 1994; 321.
  63. Nakajima H. Editorial: Growing inequity is a matter of life and death. World Heath 1994; 47: 3.
  64. World Health. Reaching Out to the Poorest. World Health 1994; 47(6); 1-31.
  65. Loyn D. The vicious circle of AIDS and poverty. BBC News World Edition. November 11, 2003.
  66. Fleck F. Poor countries lag behind on water goals. BMJ 2004; 328: 972.
  67. Barker DJ. Fetal and infant origins of adult diseases. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 1992; 343.
  68. Barker DJ. Mothers, babies and diseases in later life. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 1994.
  69. Moore SE et al. Season of birth predicts mortality in rural Gambia. Nature 1997; 338: 434.
  70. Barker DJ. In utero programming of chronic disease. Clin Sci (Colch) 1998; 95: 115-128.
  71. Barker DJ. Mothers, babies & health in later life. 2nd ed. Church Press 1998; 217.
  72. Leon DA. Fetal growth and adult disease. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52(suppl ): S72-S82.
  73. Adair LS, Prentice AM, A critical evaluation of the fetal oprigins hypothesid and its implications for developing countries. J Nutr 2004; 134: 191-193.
  74. Forrester T. Historic and early life origins of hypertension in Africans. J. Nutr 2004; 134: 211-216.
  75. Kuzawa CW. Modeling fetal adaptation to nutrient restriction: testing the fetal origins hypothesis with a supply-demand model. J. Nutr 2004; 134:194-200.
  76. te Velde SJ et al. Fetal origins of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. In: Kemper HCG. Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study. Medicine and Sport Science 2004; 47: 64-77.
  77. Chandra RK. Fetal malnutrition and postnatal immunodeficiency. Am J Dis Chil 1975: 129: 450-454.
  78. McDade TW et al. Prenatal undernutrition is associated with reduced immune function in adolescence. FASEB 2000; 14: A792 (abs.).  
  79. McDade TW et al. Prenatal undernutrition, postnatal environments, and antibody response to vaccination in adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74: 543-548.
  80. McDade TW et al. Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal growth are associated with adolescent thymic function. J Nutr 2001; 131: 1225-1231.
  81. Moore SE et al. Prenatal or early postnatal events predict infectious deaths in young adulthood in rural Africa. Int J Epidemiol 1999; 28: 1088-1095.
  82. Beach RS et al. Gestational zinc deprivation in mice: persistence of immunodeficiency for three generations. Science 1982; 281: 469-471.
  83. Benarde MA. Our precarious habitat: fifteen years later. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1989; 656.
  84. Sancton TA. TIME planet of the year: what on eart are we doing? TIME 1989; 133(1); 26-30.
  85. Giraldo RA. SIDA y agentes estresantes: El SIDA no es infeccioso ni se transmite sexualmente. Este es un síndrome tóxico-nutricional causado por el alarmante incremento mundial de agentes estresantes inmunológicos. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 186.
  86. Ortiz J, Pacheco C et al. STOP a destruição do mundo. Lisboa: Próton Editora Ltda., 1991. www.stop.org.br
  87. Fuchs J et al. Oxidative inbalance in HIV infected patients. Medical Hypothesis 1991; 36:60-64.
  88. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner V, Papadimitriou JM. Oxidative Stress, HIV and AIDS. Res Immunol 1992; 143: 145-148.
  89. Baruchel S, Wainberg MA. The role of oxidative stress in disease progression in individuals infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. J Leukocyte Biol 1992; 52: 111-114.
  90. Greenspan HC. The role of oxidative oxygen species, antioxidants and phytopharmaceuticals in human immunodeficiency virus activity. Med Hypothesis 1993; 40: 85.
  91. Favier A. The place of oxygen free radicals in HIV infections. A collection of papers presented at a conference on “The place of oxygen free radicals in HIV infection”, Les Deux Alpex, France, January 1993. Chem Biol Interac 1994; 91: 91-100.
  92. Papadopulos-Eleopulos E. Looking back on the oxidative stress theory of AIDS. Continuum (London) 1998/9; 5(5); 30-35.
  93. Shallenberger F. Selective compartmental dominance: An explanation for a nonifectious, multifactorial etiology for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and a rationale for ozone therapy and other immune modulating therapies. Med Hypothesis 1998; 50: 67-80.
  94. Turner VF. Reducing Agents and AIDS - Why are we waiting? Med J Austr 1990; 153: 502.
  95. Javier JJ et al. Antioxidant micronutrients and immune function in HIV-1 infection. FASEB Proc 1990; 4A: 940-945.
  96. Adam ES. Antioxidant supplementation in HIV/AIDS. Nurse Practit 1995; 20: 8.
  97. Byrnes SC. Overcoming AIDS with natural medicine. Honolulu: Centaur Books;  1997; 219.
  98. Zhang Z, Inserra PF, Watson RR. Antioxidants and AIDS. En: Garewal HS. Antioxidants and disease prevention. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1997; 45-66.
  99. Keppe N. The origin of illnesses, psychic, organic and social. Englewood cliffs, New Jersey: Próton Editora Ltda., 2002. www.trilogiaanalitica.org
  100. Pacheco C. Healing trough consciousness. Theomania: The cause of stress. The revolutionary scientific method that cures both mental and physical illness through dialogues alone – making clinical treatment, medicines and hospitalization unnecessary. São Paulo: Proton Editora Ltda., 1983: 183.
  101. Keppe N. Liberation of the people. The pathology of power.  The first scientific study of the psycho-social pathology of people with power – psychotics who are impeding human development and destroy society. São Paulo: Próton Editora Ltda., 1988: 420.
  102. Johnson C. Factors known to cause false-positive HIV antibody test results; Zenger’s San Diego, California, September 1996; p. 8-9.
  103. Shenton J. Positively false. Exposing the myths about HIV and AIDS. London: I.B. Tauris; 1998; 277.
  104. Giraldo RA. Everybody reacts positive on the ELISA test for HIV. Continuum (London): 1999; 5(5); 8-10.
  105. Giraldo RA. Las pruebas para el VIH no son adecuadas. “El Pequeño Periódico” Publicación de la Fundación Arte y Ciencia, Medellín, Colombia, Julio/Agosto 1999; (52); 12-15.
  106. Barré-Sinoussi F, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for AIDS. Science 1983; 220: 868-871.
  107. Gallo RC et al. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science 1984; 224: 500-502.
  108. Levy JA et al. Isolation of lymphocytopathic retroviruses from San Francisco patients with AIDS. Science 1984; 225: 840-842.
  109. O’Connor TE, Rausher FJ, Ziegel RF. Density gradient centrifugation of murine leukemia virus. Science 1964; 144: 1144-1147.
  110. de Harven E. Remarks on the ultraestructure of type A, B, and C virus particles. Advances Virus Research 1974; 19: 221-264.
  111. Morimoto RI, Tissieres A, Georgopoulus C. Stress proteins in biology and medicine. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: 450.
  112. van Eden W, Young DB. Stress proteins in medicine. New York: Marcel Dekker, INC.; 1996: 578.
  113. Latchman DS. Stress proteins. Berlin: Springer; 1999: 422.
  114. Bate MW et al. The human immunodeficiency virus LTR-promoter region as a reporter of stress-induced gene expression. In: Keyse SM. Stress response: methods and protocols. Totowa, NJ: Human Press; 2000: 277-295.
  115. Ellison BJ, Downey AB, Duesberg PH. HIV as a surrogative marker for drug use: A re-analysis of the San Francisco men’s health study. Genetica 1995; 95: 165-171.
  116. Gallo RC. The AIDS virus. Scientific America 1987; 256: 47-56.
  117. Gallo RC, Montagnier L. AIDS in 1988: In their first collaborative article the investigators who discovered HIV introduce a single-topic issue on AIDS. They recount the discovery and offer prospects for vaccine, for therapy and for the epidemic. Scientific America 1988; 259: 41-48.
  118. Gallo RC, Montagnioer L. The discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS. NEJM 2003; 349: 2283-2285.
  119. Bell R. Impure science: Fraud, compromise, and political influence in scientific research. : John Wiley & Sons; 1992; 301.
  120. Feyerabend P. How to defend society against science. En: Hacking Scientific revolutions. : Oxford University Press, 1988, 1981; 156-167.
  121. Fischer HD. Medicine, media and morality. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1992; 263.
  122. Farber C. Out of control: AIDS and the corruption of medical science. Harper’s Magazine, March 2006: 37-52.
  123. Cohen J. HHS: Gallo guilty of misconduct. Science 1993; 259: 168-170.
  124. Cohen J. Money matters: the marketplace of HIV/AID$. Science 1996; 272:  1880-1881.
  125. Giraldo RA. La industria del SIDA: Manipulación de un error científico. “El Pequeño Periódico”, publicación de la Fundación Arte y Ciencia, Medellín, Colombia, Noviembre de 1996; (48); p. 8,9.
  126. Giraldo RA. SIDA: Crísis en el metodo científico. “El Pequeño Periódico”, Publicación de la Fundación Arte y Ciencia, Medellín, Colombia, Mayo de 1997;  (49); p. 7-11.
  127. Koch R. Die aetiologie der tuberculose. A translation by Berna Pinner and Max Pinner with an introduction by Allen K. Krause. Am Rev Tuberc 1932; 25: 285-323.
  128. Green GM, Daniel TM, Ball WC. Koch centennial memorial. 100th anniversary of the announcement of the discovery of the tubercle bacillus by Robert Koch, March 24, 1982. New York: American Lung association; 1982: 132.
  129. Echecerri J. Definiendo enfermedad: El modelo, sus dificultades y las implicaciones para la práctica médica. Revista Colombiana de Neumología, Julio 2003; 15(2): 69-81.
  130. Rothman KJ. Causal inference in epidemiology. Multiple analysis. Interactions between causes. Analysis with multiple levels of exposure. En: Modern epidemiology. : Little Brown; 1986: 7-22, 285-310, 311-326 y 327-350.
  131. Rothman KJ. Causal inference. Chestnut Hill, MA: Epidemiology Resources; 1988; 207.
  132. Rothman KJ. Adjustments are needed for multiple comparison. Epidemiol  1990; -46.
  133. Greenland S. Causation and causal inference. En: Detels R, WW, McEwen J, Omenn GS. Textbook of public health. Third edition. Volume 2; The Methods of public health. New York Oxford University Press; 1997; 617-630.
  134. Vasco-Uribe A. La causalidad (modulo 4). En: Curso de metodologia de la investigacion en salud. Barcelona: IDER S.L.; 1993: 76.
  135. Kuhn TS. Crisis in the emergence of scientific theories. The response to crisis. The nature and necessity of scientific revolutions. En: The structure of scientific revolutions. Second edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1970; 66-76, 77-91, 92-110.
  136. Craddock M. Doesn’t anybody read anymore? Reappraising AIDS 1996; 4(11); 1-4.
  137. Craddock M. HIV: Science by press conference. En: Duesberg PH. AIDS: virus or drug induced. Dordrecht: Klower Academic Publishers; 1996; 127-130.
  138. Horrobin DF. The philosophical basis of peer review and the suppression of innovation. JAMA 1990; 263: 1438-1441.
  139. Horrobin DF. Peer review of grant applications: a harbinger for mediocrity in clinical research? Lancet 1996; 348: 1293-1295.
  140. Horrobin DF. Something rotten at the core of science? Trends Pharmacol Sciences 2001; 22 (2): 51-52.
  141. Giraldo R, Ródenas P, Flores JJ, Embid A. Tratamiento y prevención del SIDA:  guía de principios básicos para una alternativa no tóxica, efectiva y barata. Natura Medicatrix 2003; 21: 66-75.
  142. Giraldo RA. Terapia nutricional para el tratamiento y la prevención del SIDA: bases científicas. Natura Medicatrix 2003: 218-230.
  143. Goldberg B. Detoxification therapy. En: Alternative medicine. The definitive guide. , Washington: Future Medicine Publishing Inc.; 1994a; 156-166.
  144. Giraldo RA et al. Is it rational to treat or prevent AIDS with toxic antiretrovital drugs in pregnant women, infants, children, and anybody else? The answer is negative. Continuum (London) 1999; 5(6); 38-52.
  145. Rasnick D. Inhibitors of HIV protease useless against AIDS, bacause HIV doesn’t cause AIDS. Reappraising AIDS 1996; 4(8); 1-4.
  146. Chiu DT, Duesberg PH. Toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) on human and animal cells in culture at concentrations used for antiviral therapy. Genetica 1995; 95: 103-109.
  147. Duesberg PH. With therapies like this who needs disease? En: Inventing the AIDS Virus. Forword by Nobel Laureate Kary Mullis. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing Inc. 1996; 299-359.
  148. Duesberg PH. HIV, AIDS & zidovudine. Lancet 1992; 339: 805-806.
  149. Lauritsen J. Poison by prescription: The AZT story. New York: Asklepios; 1990.
  150. Lauritsen J. The AIDS war. Propaganda, profiteering and genocide from the medical-industrial complex. New York:  Asklepios; 1993; 480.
  151. Tang AM et al. Improved antioxidant status among HIV-infected injecting drug users on potent antiretroviral therapy. JAIDS 2000; 23: 321-326.
  152. Irwin M. AIDS and the voodoo hex. February 2002.
  153. Giraldo RA. Demolishing Fear. Prologue in: Roberts J. Fear and the invisible. HIV, other viruses and the medical establishment. London: In press. 2008: 235.
  154. Keppe N. Liberation. São Paulo: Próton Editora Ltda., 1980: 230.
  155. Pacheco C. A cura das doenças através da farmácia interior. Psicanálise Integral 2005; 27(31):14-20.

[1] Physician, specialist in Internal Medicine with emphasis in infectious diseases from University of Antioquia, Colombia. Obtained a mark of Distinction from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine of the University of London at obtained a Master of Science in Clinical Tropical Medicine. Trilogical Psychoanalyst from the International Society of Analytical Trilogy, São Paulo, Brazil. Independent AIDS researchers since 1981. Member of the Board of Directors of “Rethinking AIDS” since 1997.


  Home     Mail     Links     Articles     Reports     Correspondence     Immunological Stressor Agents [PDF]   Español